Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that studies diseases of the musculoskeletal system Nov. His main interests are:
- Knee surgery
- Foot and ankle surgery
- Hip surgery
- Shoulder surgery
- Hand and wrist surgery
- Prosthetic Applications
- Oncological Orthopedics
The knee is the joint that we have the most problems with. The reasons for this can also be explained as the fact that it is subjected to more load than other joints, the two longest bones of our body make joints and ensure their strength only with soft tissues. Damage to cartilage tissue, a tear in the meniscus, a rupture in the ligaments disrupt the health of the knee, and pain, swelling, tripping, locking occur in the knee.
Interests Of Knee Surgery
- Sports Injuries Around The Knee
- Fractures Around The Knee
- Knee Ligament Surgeries
- Knee cartilage operations, cartilage production and Transplantation
- Meniscus surgery, repairs, implants and transplants
- Knee Surface Coating prostheses, partial dentures and total dentures
- Corrective Operations For Arrhythmias
The hip joint and the pelvis in which this joint is located play an effective role in healthy standing, walking, and running actions. Congenital unhealthy development of the hip joint or subsequent fractures and dislocations, infection, bone resorption, pain in the groin that spreads to the inner face of the thigh in the presence of tumors, swelling, limp walking and joint movement are problems that patients often face. Posture disorder, limping walking, leg length inequalities, joint movement restriction, pain and tenderness around the thigh, swelling are conditions that need to be examined.
Hip Surgery Interests
- Hip dislocations (adult and child)
- Hip Joint Cartilage Problems
- Bone and joint infections
- Fractures and dislocations
- Athlete Injuries
One of the most detailed areas of Orthopedics, the shoulder can be a source of important problems, especially in athletes and older age groups. The shoulder is an important joint that positions our hands in the environment so that we can use it as we want. The shoulder area consists of 3 basic bones. Ligaments, muscles and tendons allow bones to connect and move to each other. Repetitive forced activities, accidents, sporting attempts involving technical errors initiate wear processes in these structures that form the joint. Wear, early pain, activity restriction, long-term calcification can result.
Shoulder Surgery Interests
- Dislocated Shoulder
- Fractures Around The Shoulder
- Shoulder Joint Calcification
- Rotator Cuff Tears-Jamming Syndrome
- Joint Dislocations
- Joint Degeneration
- Tendon Problems
- Dull Shoulder
- Calcified Tendinitis
Hand and wrist surgery
Novel novelization of all types of injuries, diseases and problems related to the skin, subcutaneous, muscle, tendon (muscle beam), nerve, vein, joint and bone in the area starting from the tip of the finger to the shoulder constitute the main subjects of hand surgery.
Interests of hand and wrist surgery
- Fractures and dislocations in the hand
- Muscle and tendon breaks Nov.
- Very severe injury or rupture of the limb
- All Kinds Of Congenital Deficiencies, Disorders, Adhesions
- Advanced paralysis due to a severed nerve or loss of function due to a circulatory disorder
- Bad or incorrectly boiled fractures and dislocations
Foot and ankle surgery
Each foot has 30 joints and rides on our feet approximately 2-3 times our body weight when walking, 7 times as much as when running. The relationship of these bones to each other deteriorates over time, even if there is no external intervention.
Interests of foot and ankle surgery
- Flatfoot and compression disorders
- Foot and ankle deformities
- Thumb and finger problems
- Bone protrusions
- Bone cysts
- Sports injuries
- Traumatology (heel fractures, foot fractures, ankle fractures)
- Ilizarov surgery (bone extension, decoction, deformity correction)
It examines congenital or subsequent curvature of the spine (scoliosis), degenerative (calcification-related) problems caused by hump and aging of the spine, humps and fractures due to bone resorption, and spinal injuries due to accidents, spinal infections, spinal tumors.
In the spine surgery department, orthopedists and neurosurgeons work together. Doctors specializing in physical therapy are involved in the treatment processes of problems such as innate or subsequent spinal curvatures, fractures and injuries.
Scoliosis is a common name given to the curvature of the spine to the right or left. Scoliosis usually does not cause symptoms at an early stage, as it progresses, the following symptoms occur:
* One shoulder higher than the other is one of the most common symptoms. One scapula can be higher or more pronounced than the other.
• When the arms are dangled sideways, there is more space between the arm and the torso on one side is also one of the symptoms.
* One hip may appear higher or more prominent than the other.
• When the patient is looked at from behind and asked to lean forward until his spine becomes parallel to the ground, one side of his back may appear higher than the other, an image is formed as if there is hump.
Although there is some evidence that scoliosis may be of genetic origin, it is not known exactly what causes scoliosis, despite all studies. But a number of external factors that are effective in the development of scoliase have also been identified. That is to say:
- The child is spastic
- Having a stroke in childhood
- Infections passed during pregnancy
- Some vitamin deficiencies
Scoliosis is a disease that threatens the future of children of growing age. When the disease is detected early, a high percentage of success can be achieved in its treatment. But if curvatures of the spine, which cannot be diagnosed in time, progress, they hinder children’s normal development. During adulthood, low back and back pain, heart and lung function disorders are observed.
Although treatment for scoliosis may vary depending on the type and size of scoliosis, the most common treatment options are:
* Observation: in patients below 20 degrees and close to completion of skeletal development, only observation and control at certain intervals are sufficient. Observation lasts until the patient completes the development of the skeletal system.
* Corset treatment: the purpose of the corset is to try to prevent the increase of the slope. Corset is especially effective in children where the slope is above 25 degrees and growth continues.
* Surgical treatment: surgery is inevitable if the slope is over 50 degrees and the child is still growing. Curvatures above 50 degrees continue to increase after the growth ends.
The main treatment methods used in orthopedics are:
- Prosthetic applications
- Bone extension surgeries
* It is the diagnosis and treatment method applied by orthopedics and Traumatology branch today. An average of 4 mm After inflating the joint with water. it is made in the form of insertion inserts through the skin of devices in thickness. It is an advantageous method compared to open surgery in terms of reducing the length of hospital stay, the risk of infection, the amount of pain after surgery and the poor cosmetic appearance due to the smallness of skin incisions and little damage to tissues. In order for the method to be applied, training and special surgical equipment are required.
It is based on replacing joints with artificial parts.
Cartilage destruction and disfigurement in the joints for various reasons cause pain, movement restriction and disability. For this reason, replacement and rehabilitation of the surfaces of the joint is necessary.
We can group the causes that cause cartilage deformation in the joints as follows.
- Poorly treated fractures and dislocations
- Congenital causes (congenital hip dislocation, etc.)
- Metabolic bone diseases
- Curvature, especially in the joints that carry weight in the legs
- Meniscus, ligament and capsule injuries in joints
- Deterioration of bone and cartilage circulation (avascular necrosis)
- Idiopathic (the cause of which is unclear)
- Rheumatic diseases
The above mentioned causes reduce joint movements, pain, swelling, work ability decreases, the person can move with help.
Total joint replacement is a surgical procedure. Artificial materials used in joints are prepared in different ways depending on the type, shape, movement and size of joints. It is decided by the orthopedist which one can be used with special measurement systems and special X-rays.
Metal and plastic parts are used in artificial joint prostheses. Metal parts are made of materials such as stainless steel, cobalt chrome molybdenum alloy, titanium, and plastic parts are made of high-density polyethylene, which is resistant to wear and pressure.
These materials are fixed to the bone with acrylic (bone cement). Some prostheses are special structures (screws, etc.) provided on their faces facing the bone.) it is fixed to the bone by means of which it is called cement-free prosthesis. Especially in young patients whose bone structure is very good, this type of prosthesis has started to be preferred.
After surgery, the patient’s recovery time varies from patient to patient and depending on the joint.
A second operation is not required when the use of prostheses continues during life when it is performed in elderly patients. If this operation has to be performed in young patients 2. and sometimes 3. replacement operations may be required.
Bone Extension Surgeries
Especially bone extension operations today have brought a solution to paralysis, fractures, inflammation, short legs and arms that occur in some bone diseases.
Bone extension operation is based on opening a certain amount (1 mm per day on average) of space each day with the help of a device called a device attached to the upper and lower parts of the cut bone with screws or wires after cutting the bone to be extended. During extension, regular checks monitor whether the bone fills the opening interval. After the extension ends, it is expected that the new bone tissue in the opening interval will harden.
Arm extension surgeries are performed more rarely.
Leg and arm extensions for aesthetic purposes can be made in a type of dwarfism called achondroplasia. Here, the torso is of normal height, the arms and legs are short. In these cases, it is possible to extend the leg up to 20-25 cm and the arm up to 10-12 cm, provided that it is started early.
In correctly selected and well-followed cases, satisfactory results are obtained up to 90%.