Eye health and diseases

The main areas of interest of eye health and diseases are:

  • Eye aesthetics
  • Visual impairments
  • Cataract
  • Glaucoma
  • Retinal Diseases
  • Corneal diseases
  • Eye tumors

Eye Aesthetics

Eyelid Miscarriage

Low upper eyelid is called ptosis. Valve miscarriage can be seen in both newborn babies and adults and the elderly.

Causes of eyelid miscarriage include:

Problems with the nerve holding the eyelid above

  • Defects in the eyelid muscle (in those with congenital valve miscarriage, this novelization is underdeveloped)
  • Ageing
  • Past eye surgeries
  • Treatment of eyelid miscarriage is performed by surgical methods.

Age-Related Eyelid Changes

With aging, wrinkles occur with falling on the eyebrows and eyelids, turning inward or outward on the lower eyelid, bags or depressions around the eyes.

These changes can be seen not only with aging, but also familial in people who are younger.

Changes around the lid give the person an unhappy, tired, sleepy and old look.

Depending on the type of problem, the form of treatment is determined.

Detention Bags

The most important reason for the formation of detention bags is genetic predisposition. Detention bags give the person an older and more tired appearance than they are. It is the removal of excess adipose tissue or the replacement of settlements.

Congenital small or absent eye

Because the size and presence of the eye provides the development of tissues around the eye, the eyelids, soft tissues around the eye and the bone frame do not reach sufficient size in the case that the eye is undeveloped. Treatment is performed with surgical intervention.

Visual Impairments

Eye is an optical system similar to a camera. Light and images from outside break through the cornea and lens layer, reaching the point of vision on the retina. In a Normal eye, rays from outside break in the cornea and lens, falling into the center of vision, creating a clear image. In some cases, depending on the structure of the cornea, lens and eye, images may not form clearly on the retina.

  • Myopia

Myopia, defined as the inability to see clearly far away, is the result of focusing the Rays entering the eye in front of the network layer. It is a structural feature and its genetic transition is frequent. It usually begins at school age and increases as the growth process continues.

  • Hypermetropia

In general, it is not able to see well near. Structural and hereditary features are the most common cause of hypermetropia. Untreated hypermetropia increases the risk of lazy eye in children. For this reason, all children before school age should have an eye examination.

  • Astigmatism

Astigmatism is an eye condition that causes blurred vision at any distance. It can be structural, as well as degenerative diseases, infections and traumas that can lead to changes in the base of the cornea.

  • Cataract

Cataract is the dimming of the lens inside the eye, losing its transparency. The loss of transparency of the lens makes a curtain effect, preventing the Rays entering the eye from passing into the nerve layer. As a result, vision reduction begins.

Cataracts are mostly seen in the following cases:

  • Diabetics
  • Newborn babies
  • After physical blows to the eye
  • Long-term cortisone drug users

At night, halos can lead to complaints such as Vision, excessive glare, sensitivity to light, and double vision, while cataracts reflect a decrease in vision.

How Is Cataract Treated?

Surgery is the only treatment for cataracts.

In phaco technique, by entering the eye through a very small incision, the cataract is broken down and absorbed and cleaned thanks to ultrasound energy. Thanks to the phaco device, the operation time is short and the operation is seamless, safe. Thanks to this method, recovery after surgery is very fast.

In phaco method, after the cataract is cleaned, an artificial lens made of a special substance is placed instead of the patient’s natural lens. These lenses can also be produced in a feature that can eliminate far, near, middle distance and astigmatism vision problems.

Glaucoma ( Eye Pressure)

Intraocular bglocoma ( eye pressure)

It is a disease that causes visual field loss by causing damage to the optic nerve as a result of increasing intraocular pressure. As a result, the person’s visual field gradually narrows as soon as they are aware, and if left untreated, they can go up to blindness permanently.

Eye pressure in the early stage usually does not give a symptom. A rare type of eye pressure can be nausea, vomiting, pain, blurred vision. With early detection, the progression of glaucoma can be stopped.

An important point about glaucoma is that the damage can only be stopped with treatment. Damage to the optic nerve that occurs is permanent. Detailed eye examination is required for diagnosis.

Factors that increase the risk of glaucoma include:

  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Advancing age
  • Diabetes and goiter disease
  • Hypertension
  • Anemia
  • Migraine
  • Myopia
  • Long-term cortisone therapy
  • Eye injuries
  • Smoke

Glaucoma (Eye Pressure) Treatment

A wide variety of factors are evaluated when starting treatment, such as the condition of eye blood pressure, how much damage it has caused. Drug therapy, laser or surgical intervention, such as the appropriate options to start treatment.

Treatment of glaucoma can be done in three ways.


Many drops are available for the drug treatment of glaucoma. These drops reduce intraocular pressure by either reducing the production of fluid in the eye or increasing its output. They are used regularly and throughout life at certain intervals. Despite medication, vision loss increases and eye pressure does not decrease, other treatment methods are resorted to.

Laser Treatment

A laser procedure can be performed for many purposes in glaucoma. A timely laser procedure is very useful in an acute glaucoma crisis.

Surgical Treatment

Surgery opens a hole in the white part of the eye. This hole, which is too small to be visible from the outside, drains excess fluid inside the eye. After surgery, glaucoma usually disappears.

Retinal Diseases

The Retina is a layer of mesh that covers the back wall of the eyeball like wallpaper and consists of vision cells; it is the innermost layer. It has vision cells on it. 95% of the vision event occurs at the Yellow point in the center of the retina.

Diseases that occur in the retina directly threaten our sense of vision. Retinal diseases most often have the following symptoms:

  • Sudden or slow vision loss
  • Broken or curved vision
  • Light flashes
  • Dark objects flying in front of the eye
  • Cloaking of opinion
  • Temporary and short-term vision loss
  • The following diseases are examples of retinal diseases:
  • Bleeding due to diabetes and hypertension disease
  • Retinal vascular blockages
  • Retinal detachments / tears
  • Yellow spot disease
  • Diebetics
  • Congenital retinal diseases
  • Retinal edema
  • Foreign bodies entering the eye
  • Macular holes
  • Vitreoretinal surface disorders
  • Retinal tumors

Retinal Hemorrhages

The transparent liquid in the gel structure that fills the inside of the eyeball is called vitreous. As a result of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, trauma, there may be bleeding into the vitreous. Filling the inside of the vitreous with blood both prevents the patient from seeing, and does not allow the doctor to determine the cause in the retina that leads to intraocular bleeding.

In patients who develop intra-vitreous bleeding, there is usually sudden vision loss. In mild intra-vitreous bleeding, patients talk about seeing a flying object or an image similar to soot looting. After the visual acuity test, an examination of the back segment is attempted with the help of a lens; in cases where it is difficult due to bleeding, ultrasonography is used.

Causes of retinal bleeding:

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

Retinal detachment: develops due to tears or holes in the retina. It is most commonly seen in patients with high myopia. It can occur at any age, more often in middle age and above.

How Is Retinal Bleeding Treated?

If it is not caused by trauma or retinal detachment, vitreous bleeding is primarily expected without treatment for some time due to the possibility of self-absorption. During this period, it is recommended that the patient drink plenty of water and lie on an upright pillow. But in cases where the bleeding does not decrease, surgery is required to treat vitreous bleeding. This process, which allows the vitreous to be cleaned, is called pars plana vitrectomy.

Retinal detachment and tears

Retinal rupture most often occurs in high myopia as a result of thinning of the retinal layer due to the growth of the eyeball. However, retinal tears can also develop in eyes that do not have defects after trauma or heavy lifting. After past retinal infections and after some degenerative retinal diseases, there may also be thinning of the retina, and then retinal rupture may develop from these areas.

The Retina is in contact with the vitreous gel that covers the inside of the eye. In a healthy eye, the vitreous is homogeneous, gel-like and supports the retina. As a result of the aging of the vitreous over time, the consistency of this gel structure changes and liquefies. The liquefied intraocular gel loses its ability to support the retina and is separated from the retinal layer to which it is attached. This detachment is called posterior vitreous detachment. This decomposing vitreous gel fluctuates inside the eye with eye movements and is expressed by patients as flying black spots or tulles.

As the intraocular gel separates from the retina, it creates reservations. Mechanical stimulation in the retina as a result of these reservations is perceived by the patient as flashes of light or lightning. These reservations can cause tears in the thinned retina. If the torn retinal layer passes through a vein, there may be bleeding into the eye. Retinal detachment is formed by entering a liquefied intraocular gel into a tear formed in the retina, separating the retina from the layer in which it is attached under the nerve layer. The visual function of the retinal region, which is separated from the tissue below it, decreases.

Retinal detachment undeveloped retinal tears are surrounded by an argon laser, preventing fluid from leaking inside.

Retinal detachment is a disease that can progress to blindness, its treatment is urgent, and its only treatment is surgery. In this case, the vitreous gel is cleaned with vitrectomy technique and the inside of the eye is filled with special tampons (expanding gas or silicone oil)

Retinal Vascular Blockages

Retinal vascular blockages rank second among vascular diseases of the retina after diabetes. The main problem is damage to the wall of the retinal vessels. It is often seen between 50-60 years of age. Patients usually complain of sudden painless vision loss.

It is manifested by sudden, painless and unable to pass vision loss. Depending on the vein held by the disease, there may be a minimal decrease in vision, as well as very serious vision loss.

Risk factors that play a role in the formation of retinal vascular obstruction include:

  • Ageing
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure and diabetes

Glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure)

If part of the retinal vein is blocked and there is a collection of fluid in the visual center, laser cortisone therapy is applied into the eye.

Yellow Spot Disease

The result of aging is the deterioration of the yellow spot in the retina and decreased vision.

The patient sees straight lines as broken. He can’t see the point he’s looking at, he can see the surroundings. Close vision is most affected by reading.

It is certainly more common in smokers. Most develop over the age of 70, but the risk begins over the age of 55.

There are two types: dry type, wet type.

Dry type, capillaries are intact, no bleeding. Vision decreases, but no blindness.

Wet-type capillaries are brittle and have bleeding. There is a risk of blindness. In wet type treatment, argon laser, photodynamic therapy and intraocular injections are used.

How Is Yellow Spot Disease Treated?

Dry type treatment is done with oral support drugs. In wet type treatment, argon laser, photodynamic therapy and intraocular injections are used.

In photodynamic therapy, the capillaries that bleed in the retina are painted with a special drug given by a needle made to the patient’s arm, and the diseased area is destroyed by a laser made to the painted place.

Anti-VEGF drugs are used in intraocular injections. Injection application is easy and painless for the patient. Intraocular injections are made 3 times a month apart.

Patients with reduced vision can also be greatly helped by special glasses called LVA. Most patients are comfortable reading newspapers with these glasses.

Yellow spot patients should be examined every 4 months.

Diabetic Retinopathy

It is the most common cause of blindness due to diabetes. Diabetes affects the nerve layer (retina or network layer) of the eye, in particular, and the capillaries in this layer, disrupting its operation and leading to vision loss. Retinal disorders associated with diabetes are called diabetic retinopathy.

Corneal Diseases

The cornea, located in the anterior part of the eye, has the task of focusing light and protecting the eye from external factors, has a large role in visual function, is the inclined transparent layer of the eye and is the most important refractive lens of the eye. The transparency of the cornea can be disrupted by many diseases. These diseases can be congenital, genetic, or microbial


The condition of inflammation of the cornea is called keratitis. Corneal tissue, which is transparent, can become blurred, thin or even punctured due to keratitis.

Keratitis can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or rheumatism.

Keratitis occurs with symptoms of pain in the eye, stinging, redness, blurred vision, and white spots in the eye.

Bacterial Keratitis

Contact lens use without complying with hygienic conditions, eye operations, eye surface injuries (sand escape to the eye, etc.) are the main causes of bacterial keratitis.

It is often treated with antibiotic drops and outpatient

Virus Keratitis

The most common viral keratitis are Herpes keratitis and adenovirus keratitis

Adenovirus keratitis: occurs after intense Burr and redness of the eyes. Treatment of spots in the cornea may require a long treatment process that lasts for months.

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